Lecture Notes - Islam

1. Arab Conquests and the Rashidun

2. Umayyads Empire

3. Abbasid Empire

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(first four “Rightly Guided” Caliphs). Regarded by Sunni Islam as the normative period – an idealized past to be emulated.


A new post-tribal order and distinctively Islamic culture began to emerge.

- The Turks

- 11 th c. Turks military power and ruling authority had passed from Arabs to Turks.

- Seljuks: By middle of 11 th c. seljuk confederation had established domination over Iran .

- 1055 Abbasid Caliph invited Seljuk leader to assume administrative and military authority in Baghdad

- Manzikert 1071, Seljuks began to transform Anatolia into Turkish-Islamic land

- Nizam al-Mulk, Seljuk minister founded madrasa system

- Ottoman empire emerged from Seljuk conquests of Anatolia .

- The Mongols

- Genghis Khan: in early 13 th c. conquored northern China

- 1220s Samarkand and Bukhara and all Iran

- Hulagu: Son, 1256 campaign to conquor all Islamic lands to Egypt

- Baghdad sacked in 1258 and Caliph killed

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